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2018年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试 英语二试卷

2018年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试

英语二试卷

Section I  Use of English

Read the following text. Choose the best words for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or D] on the ANSWER SHEET(10 points)

Why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful? Because humans have an inherent need to  1  uncertainty, according to a recent study in Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is strong that people will  2   to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will  3  .

In a series of experiments, behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago and the Wisconsin School of Business tested students' willingness to  4  themselves to unpleasant stimuli in an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one  5  , each participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previous experiment. The twist? Half of the pens would  6   an electric shock when clicked. 

Twenty-seven students were told with pens were electrified; another twenty-seven were told only that some were electrified.  7  left alone in the room The students who did not know which ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more shocks than the students who knew that would  8  . Subsequent experiments reproduced this effect with other stimuli,  9   the sound of fingernails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects.

The drive to  10  is deeply rooted in humans, much the same as the basic drives for  11  or shelter, says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago. Curiosity is often considered a good instinct---it can  12  new scientific advances. for instance- but sometimes such  13  can backfire. The insight that curiosity can drive you to do  14   things is a profound one.

Unhealthy curiosity is possible to  15  ,however. In a final experiment, participants who were encouraged to  16   how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to  17  to see such an image. These results suggest that imagining the  18  of following through on one's curiosity ahead of time can help determine  19  it is worth the endeavor. "Thinking about long-term  20  is key to reducing the possible negative effects of curiosity", Hsee says. In other words, don't read online comments.

1. [A]Protect         [B] resolve           [C] discuss                [D] ignore

2. [A]refuse          [B] wait              [C] regret                  [D] seek

3. [A]hurt            [B] last               [C]mislead                [D] rise

4. [A]alert            [B] tie                [C] treat                   [D] expose

5. [A]message         [B] review          [C] trial                    [D] concept

6. [A] remove               [B] weaken             [C] interrupt               [D] deliver

7. [A]when                [B] if                   [C] though                  [D] unless

8. [A] continue             [B] happen              [C] disappear              [D] change

9. [A] rather than          [B] regardless of     [C] such as                [D] owing to

10.[A] discover          [B] forgive              [C] forget                     [D] disagree

11. [A] pay               [B] marriage            [C] schooling              [D] food

12. [A] lead to             [B]rest on              [C] learn from             [D] begin with

13. [A] withdrawal       [B] persistence        [C] inquiry                [D] diligence

14. [A] self-reliant         [B] self-destructive   [C] self-evident         [D] self-deceptive

15. [A] define             [B] resist                [C]replace                 [D] trace

16. [A] overlook           [B] predict             [C] design                  [D] conceal

17. [A] remember         [B]  promise         [C] choose                  [D] pretend

18. [A] relief               [B] plan                 [C] duty                    [D] outcome

19. [A] why              [B] whether            [C] where                  [D] how

20. [A] consequences   [B] investments   [C] strategies            [D] limitations

 

Section II  Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.40 points

Text 1

  It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give his students a better future.

  Mr. Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but practical. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of the United States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike chain

  As Koziatek knows, there is learning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffitied desk stuck with generations of discarded chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.

  But he's also found a kind of insidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost a mark of inferiority. Schools in the family of vocational education "have that stereotype...that it's for kids who can't make it academically,"he says.

  On one hand, that viewpoint is a logical product of America's evolution. Manufacturing is not the economic engine that it once was. The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated. More education is the new principle. We want more for our kids,and rightfully so.

  But the headlong push into bachelor's degrees for all and the subtle devaluing of anything less misses an important point: That's not the only thing the American economy need. Yes, a bachelor's degree opens more doors. But even now 54 percent of the jobs in the country are middle-skill jobs, such as construction and high-skill manufacturing.But only 44 percent of workers are adequately trained.

  In other words,at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political head, frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing, one obvious solution is staring us in the face. There is a gap in working-class jobs, but the workers who need those jobs most aren't equipped to do them. Koziatek's Manchester school of Technology High School is trying to fill that gap.

  Koziatek's school is a wake-up call. When education becomes one-size-fits-all, it risks overlooking a nation's diversity of gifts.

21.A broken bike chain is mentioned to show students' lack of      .

  [A] practical ability

  [B] academic training

  [C] pioneering spirit

  [D] mechanical memorization

22.There exists the prejudice that vocational education is for kids who      .

  [A] have a stereotyped mind

  [B] have no career motivation

  [C] are not academically successful

  [D] are financially disadvantaged

23.We can infer from Paragraph 5 that high school graduates      .

  [A] used to have big financial concerns

  [B] used to have more job opportunities

  [C] are reluctant to work in manufacturing

  [D] are entitled to more educational privileges

24.The headlong push into bachelor's degrees for all      .

  [A] helps create a lot of middle-skill jobs

  [B] may narrow the gap in working-class jobs

  [C] is expected to yield a better-trained workforce

  [D] indicates the overvaluing of higher education

25.The author's attitude toward Koziatek's school can be described as      .

  [A] supportive

  [B] tolerant

  [C] disappointed

  [D] cautious

Text 2

  While fossil fuelsstill generate roughly 85 percent of the world's energy supply, it's clearer than ever that the future belongs to renewable sources such as wind and solar. The move to renewables is picking up momentum around the world: They now account for more than half of new power sources going on line.

  Some growth stems from a commitment by governments and farsighted businesses to fund cleaner energy sources.But increasingly the story is about the plummeting prices of renewables, especially wind and solar. The cost of solar panels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind turbines by close to one-third in the past eight years.

  In many parts of the world renewable energy is already a principal energy source. In Scotland, for example, wind turbines provide enough electricity to power 95 percent of homes. While the rest of the world takes the lead, notably China and Europe, the United States is also seeing a remarkable shift. In March, for the first time, wind and solar power accounted for more than 10 percent of the power generated in the US, reported the US Energy Information Administration.

  President Trump has underlined fossil fuelsespecially coalas the path to economic growth. In a recent speech in Iowa, he dismissed wind power as an unreliable energy source. But that message did not play well with many in Iowa, where wind turbines dot the fields and provide 36 percent of the state's electricity generationand where tech giants like Microsoft are being attracted by the availability of clean energy to power their data centers.

  The question "What happens when the wind doesn't blow or the sun doesn't shine" has provided a quick put-down for skeptics. But a boost in the storage capacity of batteries is making their ability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely.

  The advance is driven in part by vehicle manufacturers, who are placing big bets on battery-powered electric vehicles. Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now, this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years.

  While there's a long way to go, the trend lines for renewables are spiking. The pace of change in energy sources appears to be speeding upperhaps just in time to have a meaningful effect in slowing climate change. What Washington doesor doesn't doto promote alternative energy may mean less and less at a time of a global shift in thought.

26.The word "plummeting"Line 3, Para. 2 is closest in meaning to .

  [A] stabilizing

  [B] changing

  [C] falling

  [D] rising

27.According to Paragraph 3, the use of renewable energy in America .

  [A] is progressing notably

  [B] is as extensive as in Europe

  [C] faces many challenges

  [D] has proved to be impractical

28.It can be learned that in Iowa, .

  [A] wind is a widely used energy source

  [B] wind energy has replaced fossil fuels

  [C] tech giants are investing in clean energy

  [D] there is a shortage of clean energy supply

29.Which of the following is true about clean energy according to Paragraphs 5&6

  [A] Its application has boosted battery storage.

  [B] It is commonly used in car manufacturing.

  [C] Its continuous supply is becoming a reality.

  [D] Its sustainable exploitation will remain difficult.

30.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy____.

  [A] will bring the USA closer to other countries.

  [B] will accelerate global environmental change.

  [C] is not really encouraged by the USA government.

  [D] is not competitive enough with regard to its cost.


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